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Archaeology has been categorized into various types on the basis of nature of the work involved in the process of data collection and analysis.
This depends to a large extent on where an excavation or an exploration is taking place, and with what point of view an archaeologist wants to interpret history.
Archaeology pertains to piecing together the past, bit by bit, and attempting to complete the jigsaw.
On the basis of this, landscapes have been classified into natural and cultural landscapes, for archaeological purposes.Richardson Gill carried out extensive work in environmental archaeology in order to study the impact of climatic changes on the Mayan society.According to his theory, a continuous series of droughts were responsible for the numerous societal changes and subsequent decline of the ancient civilization.Environmental archaeology answers questions relating to the kind of natural habitat that the ancient people were surrounded by, the plants and animals living in that age, varieties of wild and cultivated crops, animals that were hunted and those which were domesticated, species of plants and animals that are now extinct, climatic changes that took place over a period of time, and the effects that the changes in natural environment had on the lives of the people and on their subsequent disappearance.Environmental archaeology encompasses field studies along with laboratory experiments. Malti Nagar carried out an ethnoarchaeological study at a chalcolithic site of Ahar in Rajasthan, India.